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Redistricting and Gerrymandering


Under the US Constitution, the US Census Bureau must conduct a new census of the total population every ten years. States and the appropriate bodies then redraw (“redistrict”) congressional, state and local voting districts on the basis of population changes. States losing or gaining populations will lose or gain congressional seats and Electoral College delegates.

Gerrymandering is an extreme form of redistricting. It is the practice of dividing or arranging a territorial unit into election districts in a way that gives one political party an unfair advantage in elections. In Texas, our state legislators draw voting district lines with limited public input.

The Texas legislators have completed drawing the voter district lines (maps) for the Texas House, Texas Senate and the Congressional districts. The governor has signed the bills related to these maps into law.  However, there is a chance that one or all maps could change because several lawsuits have been filed challenging them. Please see Court Cases below for links to the Complaints and summaries of those Complaints. Updates are posted on the Redistricting Blog.  The Dallas County Commissioners Court has completed drawing its maps which have been passed and signed into law.  They could be challenged in the future but no complaints have been filed to date.  The Dallas Redistricting Commission has just begun its process of drawing maps for the City of Dallas.  The people of Dallas are encouraged to speak out (aka “testify”) at the Redistricting Commissioners’ meetings and town hall meetings which are being held throughout the city.  Information about the meetings is posted on the Events Calendar and under Schedule of Dallas Redistricting Commissioner’s Meetings on this page.

Racial Gerrymandering is unlawful per the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Partisan Gerrymandering is lawful.

The Process

The Census Report was to be sent to the President of the US by 12/31/20, and then to the states by April 30, 2021. Historically, Texas Legislators have received the Census sometime in February. However, due to the delays caused by COVID-19, the delivery of the Census Report to Texas will be delayed until September, according to the US Census Bureau.

Based on the US Census Bureau’s estimates of a shift in population, Texas could receive three or more additional seats in the US House as a result of the 2020 census, increasing Texas’s representation in the US House from 36 to 39 seats.

Redistricting bills must be filed by the Texas legislators by March 12, 2021. Those bills which include the redistricting maps are likely to be completed long after that date due to the delay in receiving the Census data. The Governor must sign or veto the voting district plan that is passed by the legislators by June 20, 2021.

According to attorneys for the Senate Special Committee on Redistricting, because the Census will not be received by the Committee until after the Regular Session, there will be no opportunity for the Legislators to draw the maps. Therefore, both the Congressional and the Texas maps, based on the 2020 Census, will be drawn by the Legislators during a Special Session, and not by the Legislative Redistricting Board (LRB).

If the 2020 the Census were to be received during the Regular Session and the maps be drawn but not approved by the Governor during that Session, the Texas Legislative Redistricting Board (LRB) would be required to assemble within 90 days of the 87th legislative Regular Session adjournment to draw the Texas maps. The LRB would then have 60 days afterward to submit a plan for the governor’s approval. The LRB, appointed by the governor, is comprised of: Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Commissioner of the General Land Office, the Comptroller of Public Accounts, and the House Majority leader. Regarding the drawing of the Congressional maps, if the Congressional maps are not drawn and signed by Governor Abbott, he is required to call a special session of the legislators to draw the US Congressional maps.

The timing of the drawing of the maps and approval by Governor Abbott will create timing issues relating to the 2022 elections. Senator Joan Huffman has authored SB 1822 which relates to the postponement of certain dates relating to elections to be held in 2022.

The only requirement for the Texas voting district lines is that they must be contiguous for both the Texas Senate and House districts. The Texas State House lines must also follow county boundaries whenever possible. There are no requirements regarding the shape of the Congressional voting districts. There is no deadline for completion of the drawing and adoption of the plan.

Impact of Extreme Gerrymandering

Texas is the 7th most Gerrymandered state in the US *. The impact of partisan Gerrymandering is dramatic as demonstrated by the 2020 elections depicted in the chart.

Texas 2020 Congressional Results; pie charts show Republicans got 54.8% of votes and 63.9% of congressional seats in 2020

* Azavea, a Philadelphia-based firm places Texas at number 5. Brennan Center for Justice places it at number 6. Christopher Ingraham, a data specialist previously with the Brookings Institute and the Pew Research Center and now with the Washington Post’s Wonkblog section, places it at number 7. Where Texas ranks in any study depends on the methodology of the study.


Fair Maps Texas,  a coalition of non-partisan non-profits spearheaded by League of Women Voters Texas, urged Texas legislators to delay public input hearings until after the US Census data became available. Typically, if a bill related to redistricting gets scheduled for a hearing, the public can attend and testify. 


League of Women Voters of Texas Position

The League of Women Voters of Texas supports the creation of an independent redistricting commission (IRC) on all levels of redistricting, with members that reflect the diversity of the community.

Political and racial gerrymandering distorts and undermines representative democracy by allowing officials to select their voters rather than for voters to elect their officials. When done for purposes of racial discrimination, or to ensure the dominance of one political party, gerrymandering runs counter to equal voting rights for all eligible voters. For more information about the League's position on local redistricting please see "Fair and Open Redistricting Practices for Local Jurisdictions," which is supported by The  League of Women Voters of Texas:

How to Establish an Independent Citizens Redistricting Commission in Texas (ICRC)

To establish an ICRC in Texas would require a change to the Texas Constitution. A bill would need to be introduced in the Texas House or Senate. It would need to pass in both houses by two-thirds and then the bill would need to be placed on the ballot. Over 50% of the voters would need to vote for the bill. Many states have established an independent redistricting commission, but their states did not require a change to their state constitution. The need to change the Texas constitution is what makes the establishment of an ICRC in the state of Texas so challenging.

Census and Redistricting Committee

Want to get involved? Let us know! Contact Joan Ridley or Karen Muncy .

Current Activities

The committee’s Legal Project team — Victoria Zudak, Heidi Baugus, Dorothy Mundy, Ruth Alhilali, Mary-Jane Cross, and Rebecca Laharia — continues to track the status of lawsuits challenging Texas redistricting at the state and federal levels. Their updates are posted to the LWVD website every Wednesday on the Issues: Redistricting and Census page under Court Cases. 

Committee members in the League’s Observer Corps are closely following the Dallas Redistricting Commission’s progress, attending biweekly Commission meetings (virtually or in person). Eight Town Hall meetings are scheduled through February 10 at various recreation centers throughout the city, giving residents a choice of convenient location to speak about their redistricting priorities and concerns to Commission members.

Committee members also continue to monitor changes to district maps for the Dallas County Commissioners Court. These changes will first impact voting in the March 1 primary elections. 

A small group is looking ahead to 2030 with an eye to the League’s support for independent redistricting commissions. Our goal is to research local entities where IRCs have been successfully implemented (and others where they have failed) to get some ideas of what we can do to promote IRCs at the county and municipal levels. This group currently includes Joan Ridley, Karen Muncy, Amye Thompson Hollins, Norma Arratia, and Andrea Flores.

We have launched a list of suggested reading about redistricting and gerrymandering on the LWVD Issues: Redistricting and Census page under Book Corner. If you have other recommendations, please submit them to

The Redistricting Committee continues to meet on the 2nd Wednesday of the month. Please check the Event Calendar for potential time and topic changes.

How to write Letters to the Editor (LTE’s) that stand a good chance of getting published

Joan Ridley - 10/14/2021

 Why Write LTEs?

  • Educate the community about the impact of partisan and racial Gerrymandering
  • Raise interest in our chapter & attract volunteers and speaking invitations
  • Alert news editors to “newsworthiness” of this issue. Large number of letters helps.
  • Get the attention of elected officials

Look for LTE Opportunities

Stories may not talk about Gerrymandering. Our job is to point out the relationship. Examples of topics to look for:

  • Stories about redistricting and Gerrymandering
  • Certain issues like climate change, health care and gun safety have redistricting/Gerrymandering angles
  • Look for articles where legislative activity (bills and laws) do not reflect the will of the people.Ex: they are contrary to surveys on a topic
  • Administrative agencies failing to regulate adequately – likely because Congress is caving to industry pressure

Letter to the Editor Tips

  • Find out how your publication requires letters to be submitted and whether there’s a word limit.For example, DMN has a 200 word limit.
  • Construct a good argument:
    • Open by saying “thank you for… “ such as “for publishing this article”, “focusing attention on this issue”, etc
    • Reference the story or opinion piece that you’re responding to.  
    • Transition into how the story relates to redistricting and Gerrymandering.
    • Avoid including figures and other facts as much as possible.Editors don’t have time to fact check and will eliminate your LTE.
    • Identify our solution: establish an independent redistricting commission (IRC).
    • Include a call to action – something that empowers people.  Ex: I support HB or SB (name the bill) that would establish an IRC. Do not say that LWV supports the bill or that you speak for, or represent, the LWV.
    • Call out elected officials – like your member of Congress – that you’re asking to take action
    • Tone: OK to be creative, passionate and forceful, but always be respectful and truthful. 
    • Don’t procrastinate; submit your letter as soon as you can after the opportunity arises.
    • Suggestion: write your LTE in Word and do a copy and paste to the DMN submission form after you have completed your line editing and word count.
    • Avoid including links.

Message content: How do I frame my problem statement to support the idea of establishing an IRC. 

Know the League’s key messages and make sure that they are communicated in letters. 

  • Consider an emotional appeal:
    • Why you personally care about this issue.
    • What impact does racial or partisan Gerrymandering have on the lives of everyday people?
    • State how racial or partisan Gerrymandering has influenced elections.
    • What future do you want to help create, and why? How does this issue affect that future?
  • It’s OK to say that you are a member of LWVD, but do not say or imply that you represent or speak for LWVD.

After You’re Published

  • Distribute it in your personal social media circles, too. (You’ll get lots of likes!)
  • Call it to the attention of Joan and Karen.The reason is that there are several versions of some publications.Your LTE could have been published in one but not the others so we might have missed it.

Discussion & Points for letters

Just about any issue where positions taken by our elected officials are contrary to those of the people is related to racial or partisan Gerrymandering. Here are a few examples:

  • Guns
  • Health care, Medicaid expansion, women’s reproductive care
  • Climate change
  • Immigration issues
  • Lack of civility and vitriolic rhetoric
  • Election issues
  • Voting rights issues


Where to submit your Letter to the Editor. (Please send us your own suggestions):

Dallas Morning News

How to prepare for and deliver an effective statement to elected officials

Keep in mind:  

  • Your written statement might be used as evidence in court cases. Because we anticipate that several lawsuits will be filed as a result of the current redistricting, your written word could play an important role in these lawsuits.  
  • It is our civic duty to speak out.  Speaking out is our responsibility in this democratic republic.   Speak now or risk losing it.
  • Our elected officials want to hear from us, their constituents.   E-mails, phone calls and written letters are effective ways to speak out.  But, your written statement is arguably the most important tool we have to make our voices heard in this democracy.
  • Our elected officials are our employees.  So there's no need for us to feel intimidated. In fact, it should be the other way around. 
  • Please take a look at the guidelines in the PDF below for preparing to speak up effectively.  It was prepared by Stephanie Swanson, League of Women Voters Texas Redistricting Census Issue Chair. Redistricting Testimony Guide

Map Drawing and Communities of Interest

In Texas, our State Senators and members of the House of Representatives draw maps of their districts which become bills. The governor then signs those bills, vetoes them, or they become law if the governor does not act on them within 20 days. The same basic process is used throughout the state for other jurisdictions such as County Commissioners Courts, Justices of the Peace and City Councils. In some jurisdictions, the maps are drawn by redistricting commissions which in some areas might be independent of the elected officials.

An effective way to demonstrate to redistricting officials how communities of interest would be best represented, anyone or any organization can draw a map that can result in fair representation for all. See District R

Another method is to complete a survey which results in a description of neighborhood and district boundaries.   You only need to complete a survey about one neighborhood in your district.   It's easy and only takes a few minutes to complete your survey.  

These maps and survey responses can be very effective when shared with our elected officials, especially as support for public testimony about protecting communities of interest.

The US Census

The first step in the redistricting process is the taking of the US Census. To learn more about the census and its impact, please click the links below:

Gerrymandering by the Numbers

Andrea Barreiro, Associate Math Professor at Sothern Methodist University, leads a team of redistricting map drawers and analyzers, MUM_TX.  It is a project of the Research Cluster on Political Decision-Making, supported by the SMU Dedman College Interdisciplinary Institute.  Her team analyzes redistricting maps to determine and measure the likelihood that maps have been drawn with a partisan bias.

The following slides were presented to the League of Women Voters Dallas Redistricting Committee at the December, 2021 meeting.  They have been updated to include maps drawn for the Dallas City Council Redistricting Commission as of January 12, 2022.  View her slides as a pdf here:  Gerrymandering by the Numbers .

Local Redistricting

Dallas City Council Proposed Redistricting Timeline 

  • August 16, 2021 – Delivery of Census Legacy file to states and locals
  • September 30, 2021 – Delivery of Census PL 94-171 Census data to states and locals
  • September 13, 2021 – Briefing of Dallas City Council Redistricting Commissioners 
  • September 14, 2021 – Final Census results briefing to the City Council
  • October 6, 2021 - First Dallas City Council Redistricting  Committee meeting
  •  October 14, 2021 (or 30 days after Census results briefing) – Redistricting Commission must be appointed (per City Charter) 
  • September 2021 thru Completion of Work (ideally late summer/early fall 2022) – Redistricting Commission works with third party consultant,  ARCBridge  Consultanting,  to develop a new districting plan Upon Redistricting Commission completion of work and submittal of a new districting plan to the Mayor (per City Charter) – City Council consideration of new districting plan (the City Council has 45 days after the districting plan is submitted to the Mayor to adopt, or modify and adopt, a new districting plan) 
    Note:  Any modification or change to the plan must be made in open session at a city council meeting, with a written explanation of the need for the modification or change and a copy of the proposed map with the modification or change made available to the public 72 hours before a vote, and the proposed plan must be approved by a vote of three-fourths of the members of the city council. If final action is not taken by the city council within 45 days after the plan was presented to the mayor, then the recommended plan of the redistricting commission will become the final districting plan for the city.
  • January/February 2023 – Filing period for May 2023 election 
  • May 6, 2023 – first City Council election under new districting plan

Videos of Dallas Redistricting Commissioner’s Town Halls and Regular Meetings

We urge you to watch these videos.  They will give you a powerful insight into how Dallasites feel about the upcoming rearrangement of neighborhoods within the 14 voting districts in Dallas.  Please be patient as there is sometimes a delay between when these events occur and when the videos of those meetings  are posted for us to view.

Schedule of Dallas Redistricting Commissioner’s Meetings

(Please check this link frequently because the dates, times and locations for meetings could change).

How to Register to Speak Out (aka “Testify”)

Individuals who wish to speak during a Redistricting Town Hall should register at by 10 a.m. the day of the meeting.  Speakers may join virtually for the City Hall town hall meetings only and will be required to show their video in order to address the commission. See below for a complete list of Redistricting Commission meetings and town halls.

How to Attend Virtually

Click below to see the link to attend on-line. Please note that some meetings will be in-person only.

Dallas City Council Members




Email address

Phone Number

Council Liaison



Chad West


Mina Ramon


Jesse Moreno


Evelyn Amaya


Casey Thomas


Chris Soto


Carolyn King Arnold


Renita Griggs


Jaime Resendez


Penny Anderly


Omar Narvaez


Laura Cadena


Adam Bazaldua


Yesenia Valdez


Tennell Atkins


Maria Salazar


Paula Blackmon


Zoe Halfmann


Adam McGough


Madeline Madrazo


Jayne Schultz


Sophia Figueroa


Cara Mendelsohn


Luis Delgado


Gay Donnell Willis


Claire Noble



Paul E. Ridley


Max Sanchez

Dallas Redistricting Commissioners

Every city council member appoints one person to the Dallas City Redistricting Commission.




Redistricting Appointee

 Email Address


Chad West

Robert Stimson


Jesse Moreno

Roy Carlos Lopez


Casey Thomas

Gregory V Demus


Carolyn King Arnold

Kebran Alexander


Jaime Resendez

Domingo Garcia


Omar Narvaez

Ricardo Medrano


Adam Bazaldua

Diane Ragsdale


Tennell Atkins

Randall Bryant


Paula Blackmon

Brent Rosenthal


Adam McGough

Walter Alan Walne


Jayne Schultz

Matthew Garcia


Cara Mendelsohn

Jonathan Neerman


Gay Donnell Willis

Barbara Larkin


Paul E. Ridley

Norma Minnis

Dallas County Commissioners

The 2021 redistricted Dallas County Commissioners Court  map is here: Clicking on the map will enlarge it to make street names readable.



Email address

Phone Number





Theresa Daniel


Marth Rodriguez



JJ Koch

214 653-6100

Peggy Lundy

214 653-6100


John Wiley Price


Dapheny Fain



Elba Garcia

214 339-8381

Brooks Love

214 653-6670


Clay Jenkins

214 653-7949

Lauren Trimble

214 653-6591

State and Congressional Redistricting

Speak out about fair redistricting, especially about communities of interest  to insure that they are fairly represented. Send an email to these Representatives and Senators today. For more, see LWV of Texas


Dallas County has four Senators on the Texas Senate Special Committee on Redistricting.  To learn more about the Committee's activities, please go to  


Dallas County has two Representatives on the House Redistricting Committee.  To learn more about the Committee's activities, please go to



Sample Texas IRC (Independent Redistricting Commission) Bill

The provisions of following bill are consistent with the position of LWVTX.


The following is an example of what an Independent Redistricting Commission (IRC) in Texas could look like.  Senate Joint Resolution 54 was introduced by Senator Nathan Johnson (SD16) in the 87th Legislative Session. It was read and referred to the Senate Special Committee on Redistricting on March 18, 2021.

It proposes an amendment to the Texas Constitution that would establish an IRC establishing districts for the election of the Texas members of the United States House of Representatives, the Texas Senate, and the Texas House of Representatives.




Highlights – 

  • Creates a nonpartisan commission of 15 members.  Three selection pools are created based on the results of the most recent election.  The   selection pools include:  1) the majority party winner; 2) the minority party winner; and 3) the independent’s .  Two members are then selected from each of the 3 selection pools.  These initial members then choose 9 additional members - 3 from each selection pool. Membership must be representative of demographic groups including racial, ethnic, economic, and gender and geographic regions of the state.
  • Districts must equalize population of the districts in compliance with US constitution and these districts shall respect communities of interest, neighborhoods, and political subdivisions to the extent practicable; "community of interest" means an area with recognized similarities of interests, including ethnic, racial, economic, tribal, social, cultural, geographic or historic identities. The term may, in certain circumstances, include political subdivisions such as counties, municipalities, tribal lands and reservations, or school districts.
  • A redistricting plan may not, when considered on a statewide basis, unfairly favor or disfavor any political party. The determination of whether a redistricting plan has the effect of unfairly favoring or disfavoring a political party shall be based on the totality of circumstances, including whether the plan results in durable partisan bias as determined by scientifically accepted measures of partisan fairness and whether there are alternative plans that would have complied with the requirements of law and resulted in less durable levels of partisan bias. 
  • The plan is expressly prohibited from taking into consideration the residence of any member of the United States House of Representatives, the Texas Senate, or the Texas House of Representatives or a candidate for one of those offices; or the political party affiliation or voting history of the population of a district.
  • The independent redistricting commission shall hold each of its meetings in public, shall solicit and take into consideration comments from the public, including proposed maps, throughout the process of developing a redistricting plan, and shall carry out its duties in an open and transparent manner which provides for the widest public dissemination reasonably possible of its proposed and final redistricting plans.

Court Cases 

  • Racial Gerrymandering is unlawful per the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Partisan Gerrymandering is not unlawful.
  • There have been numerous court cases throughout the US to end partisan Gerrymandering. The League of Women Voters has frequently been the plaintiff or co-plaintiff.
  • The US Supreme Court has taken the position that it will not render a decision on partisan Gerrymandering cases. Therefore, any changes in how the voting district lines will be drawn are left to each state.

Rucho vs Common Cause

Rucho et al. v. Common Cause et al:

Summary of Rucho vs Common Cause Dissent:


Justice Kagan Dissenting Opinion in Rucho Case:

Columbia Law Review article:

Filling in the Gaps:


Racial Gerrymandering After Rucho V. Common Cause:

Rucho vs Common Cause Documents all in one folder:

Lawsuit Short Name / Link to Complaint

Date Filed – Court


Gutierrez v. Abbott

Gutierrez-v-Abbott-Original-Complaint.pdf (


See for updates

9.01.21 U.S. District Court Western District of Texas Austin Division


On September 1, 2021, in anticipation of the Texas Governor calling a Special Session of the Texas Legislature to redraw the House and Senate district maps, a lawsuit was filed in the US District Court for the Western District of Texas, Austin Division.


The Plaintiffs assert that the Texas Constitution sets the time for convening a Legislative Session to the redraw the district maps “at its first regular session after the publication of each United States decennial census.”


Since the 2020 census was not published until after the 2021 regular session of the Legislature, per the Texas Constitution the time for the legislature to redraw the Senate and House districts will at its next regular session, in 2023.


However, as the 2022 election cycle occurs before the Legislature will convene to redraw the Senate and House district maps and the census demonstrates that the current districts are mal-apportioned, the Plaintiffs assert that the District Court has the exclusive obligation to create interim maps and so requests.

League of United Latin American Citizens v Abbott

Microsoft Word - 2021 Task Force Federal Complaint Final_NINA FINAL (


See for updates

10.18.21 - U.S. District Court Western District of Texas El Paso Division

Case EP-21-CV-00259-DCG-JES-JVB

Judge David Guaderrama (Obama); Judge Jerry Smith (Reagan); Judge Jeffrey Brown (Trump)


On November 19th, 2021, the Court granted the defendant’s motion in LULAC v Abbott to consolidate it with (1) Wilson v Texas; (2) Voto Latino v Scott; (3) MALC v Texas; and (4) Brooks v Abbott. The Court also added Texas State Conference of the NAACP v Abbott and Fair Maps Texas Action Committee v Abbott.

Under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, consolidation is permitted when actions before the courts involve similar questions of law or fact. The Court found that all the above-referenced cases are before the same court (The Western District of Texas); share common defendants; share common questions of law and fact; consolidation will conserve judicial resources and best interest of all parties, and are at similar stages in litigations. Accordingly, consolidation in these cases is proper.


Voto Latino was the only plaintiff to oppose consolidation. Voto Latino’s position is that consolidation is improper because Voto Latino is properly before a single district judge, not a three-judge panel, and therefore are in different courts.

On December 10th, 2021, the Court ordered the DOJ case (United States of America v Texas) consolidated with League of United Latin American Citizens (“LULAC”) v Abbott.

Mexican American Legislative Caucus (“MALC”) v. Abbott

MALC state court lawsuit - Texas House map.pdf (


See for updates

11.3.21 - District Court of Travis County, Texas


The Mexican American Legislative Caucus, Texas House of Representatives (MALC), challenges the constitutionality of HB1 which redistricts the Texas House of Representatives based on the population findings of the 2020 U.S. census. They assert that the redistricting plan violates Article III, § 26 of the Texas Constitution, commonly known as the "county line rule."


The “county line rule” provides directions for drawing district lines when a county has a population that is less than that required for a single representative district OR a population greater than that required for a single representative district, but less than a population required for two representative districts. It provides that the under- or surplus-populations

  1. Be treated as a singular entity and
  2. Be joined with area from another contiguous county or counties.

The Plaintiffs maintain that HB1 violates the “county line rule” by splitting the surplus-population of Cameron County into two different contiguous counties to form two distinct state representative districts, House Districts 35 and 37. Because no superseding federal law—such as the Voting Rights Act or the Fourteenth Amendment's one person-one vote principle—is involved, the “county line rule” of the Texas Constitution controls and HB1 is unconstitutional.

Book Corner

People who are interested in redistricting and Gerrymandering often ask “what authoritative books can I read to bring me up to speed on this topic”?  Below is a short list of books that we recommend.

  • Rat F**ked 
    David Daley
    This book is still considered “the bible” of partisan redistricting. It addresses the issue nationally.
    Pub: 2016.  Liveright Publishing Corporation
  • Unrigged
    David Daley
    This book talks about what has happened in various states since the release of Rat F**ked, also by David Daley. 
    Pub: 2020.  Liveright Publishing Corporation
  • Gerrymandering Texas
    Steve Bickerstaff. Edited by C. Robert Heath
    This is the last book written by Texas Gerrymandering expert Steve Bickerstaff before his death in 2019.  It gives a detailed history of redistricting in Texas and sheds light on how we got to where we are now. 
    Pub: 2020.Texas Tech University Press
  • Gerrymandering
    Franklin L. Kury
    This is a very basic overview of partisan Gerrymandering, historical legislation and SCOTUS.
    Pub: 2018. The Rowan & Littlefield Publishing Group. Inc
  • Governance by Decree...The Impact of the Voting Rights Act in Dallas
     Ruth P. Mogan
    If you're wondering how our city governance works and how we got to this point, this book is a must read.  Redstricting of the City of Dallas has a very storied past fraught with lawsuits. How did we get to 14 districts plus 1 at-large and why are they shaped the way they are?  Did single member districts have the desired result?  What is the relationship between city council, the mayor and the city manger?    These are just a few of the questions that are answered in this book.
    Pub: 2004.  The University Press of Kansas.


Archived Resources

Details about 2010 redistricting and legislative votes that may be read here:

Quicklink for this page is